Development of a simplified concept for process benchmarking of urban wastewater management

ABBREVIATIONS . 3

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES . 4

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . 5

INTRODUCTION . 6

CHAPTER I . 8

Theoretical Foundations of Urban Wastewater Management System . 8

1.1 Characteristics of Urban Wastewater . 8

1.1.1 What is Urban Wastewater? . 8

1.1.2 Constituents of Wastewater . 8

1.2 Overview of the Urban Wastewater Management System . 22

1.2.1 Components of Urban Wastewater Management System . 22

1.2.2 Types of Wastewater Management System . 23

1.3 Sub-processes of Wastewater Management System . 26

1.3.1 Collection Systems . 26

1.3.2 Wastewater Treatment . 28

1.3.3 Sludge Treatment and Disposal . 36

1.3.4 Effluent Disposal and Reuse . 37

1.4 Current situation of Urban Wastewater Management in Vietnam . 37

1.4.1 The Development of the Urban Drainage System . 37

1.4.2 Current Structure and Operation of Urban Drainage Systems . 38

1.4.3 The Organizations of Urban Drainage Services in Vietnam . 39

1.4.4 Financial Aspects of Urban Drainage Companies . 40

1.4.5 Legal and Institutional Frameworks . 40

1.4.6 Investment and Management of Urban Drainage System . 41

CHAPTER II . 42

Benchmarking in the Urban Wastewater Management Sector . 42

2.1 Fundamentals of Benchmarking . 42

2.1.1 Definition of benchmarking . 42

2.1.2 Types and elements of benchmarking . 43

2.2 International Benchmarking System in Water Industry . 46

2.2.1 Benchmarking of large Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants in Austria . 46

2.2.2 Benchmarking in Canada . 48

2.2.3 North European Benchmarking Co-operation . 49

2.3 Process Benchmarking in Wastewater Sector . 52

2.3.1 What is Process Benchmarking?. 52

2.3.2 The Objectives of Process Benchmarking . 52

2.3.3 Methodology in Process benchmarking . 53

2.3.4 Different Process Benchmarking Concepts . 53

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