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TABLE OF CONTENTS  PageACKNOWLEDGEMENTS iTABLE OF CONTENTS iiABBREVIATIONS vi Chapter I: Introduction1.1 General introduction 11.2 Aims and Objectives of the study 11.3 Scope of the study 2 1.4 Method of the study 21.5 Organization of the study 3 Chapter II: literature review2.1 Discourse and discourse structure 42.1.1 Discourse 42.1.2 Discourse Analysis 42.1.3 Discourse structure 52.1.3.1 What is discourse structure? 52.1.3.2 Two views of discourse structure: as product and as process 52.1.4 Thematization 62.2 Some major linguistic features 62.2.1 Modality 62.2.2 Active and Passive voices 72.2.3 Kinds of Sentence 72.2.4 Special Words/ Phrases 82.2.5 Speech acts 9 CHAPTER IIITHE DISCOURSE STRUCTURE AND SOME MAJOR LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF THE INTERNATIONAL DECLARATION ON HUMAN RIGHTS 3.1 Definition of an International Declaration 103.2 Purposes and typical legal characteristics of the International 10 Declaration on Human Rights3.2.1 Purposes 103.2.2 Typical legal characteristics 103.3 A study of the discourse structure and some major linguistic features of the International Declaration on Human Rights 113.3.1 The Beginning 113.3.1.1 The Title and Preamble of the Declaration and their realization 113.3.1.2 Remarks 123.3.2 The Body 133.3.2.1 The Body of the Declaration and its realization 133.3.2.2 Remarks 14 a, Use of Grammar 14 a1. Modality 14 a2. Use of Active / Passive voices 14 a3. Sentence order 15 a4. Length of sentences 15a5. Kinds of sentences 16b. Use of vocabulary 17 b1. Archaic words and phrases 17 b2. Technical words 17b3. Borrowed words 17 c. Thematization 17d. Speech acts 173.3.3 The Ending 183.3.3.1 The Ending of the Declaration and its realization 183.3.3.2 Remarks 19CHAPTER IVTHE DISCOURSE STRUCTURE AND SOME MAJOR LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS IN COMPARISON WITH THOSE OF THE INTERNATIONAL DECLARATION4.1 Definition of an International Convention 204.2 Purposes and typical legal characteristics of the International Convention on Human Rights 204.2.1 Purposes 204.2.2 Typical legal characteristics 204.3 A study of discourse structure and some major linguistic features of the International Convention on Human Rights in comparison with those of the International Declaration on Human Rights 214.3.1 The Beginning 214.3.1.1 The Title and Preamble of the Convention and their realization 214.3.1.2 Remarks 234.3.2 The Body 23 4.3.2.1 The Body of the Convention and its realization 234.3.2.2 Remarks 26 a, Use of Grammar 26 a1. Modality 26 a2. Use of Active/ Passive voices 27 a3. Sentence order 27 a4. Length of sentences 27a5. Kinds of sentences 28b. Use of vocabulary 28 b1. Archaic words and phrases 29 b2. Technical words 29b3. Borrowed words 29 c. Thematisation 29d. Speech acts 304.3.3 The Ending 304.3.3.1 The Ending of the Convention and its realization 304.3.3.2 Remarks 30 Chapter VConclusion  Some notes oN THE similarities and differences between international Declarations and Conventions in terms of discourse structures and major linguistic features5.1 Similarities 32a, Type of discourse 32b, Register (or Functional style) 32c, Writing style 32d, Linguistic features 33e, Structure 335.2 Differences 34a, Expression 34b, Structure 34 * Typical structure of an International Declaration on Human Rights 37 * Typical structure of an International Convention on Human Rights 38 * Sources of data 39* References 40* ANNEX I - Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 I - International Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 VII

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS i

TABLE OF CONTENTS ii

ABBREVIATIONS vi

Chapter I: Introduction

1.1 General introduction 1

1.2 Aims and Objectives of the study 1

1.3 Scope of the study 2

1.4 Method of the study 2

1.5 Organization of the study 3

Chapter II: literature review

2.1 Discourse and discourse structure 4

2.1.1 Discourse 4

2.1.2 Discourse Analysis 4

2.1.3 Discourse structure 5

2.1.3.1 What is discourse structure? 5

2.1.3.2 Two views of discourse structure: as product and as process 5

2.1.4 Thematization 6

2.2 Some major linguistic features 6

2.2.1 Modality 6

2.2.2 Active and Passive voices 7

2.2.3 Kinds of Sentence 7

2.2.4 Special Words/ Phrases 8

2.2.5 Speech acts 9

CHAPTER III

THE DISCOURSE STRUCTURE AND SOME MAJOR LINGUISTIC FEATURES

OF THE INTERNATIONAL DECLARATION ON HUMAN RIGHTS

3.1 Definition of an International Declaration 10

3.2 Purposes and typical legal characteristics of the International 10

Declaration on Human Rights

3.2.1 Purposes 10

3.2.2 Typical legal characteristics 10

3.3 A study of the discourse structure and some major linguistic features

of the International Declaration on Human Rights 11

3.3.1 The Beginning 11

3.3.1.1 The Title and Preamble of the Declaration and their realization 11

3.3.1.2 Remarks 12

3.3.2 The Body 13

3.3.2.1 The Body of the Declaration and its realization 13

3.3.2.2 Remarks 14

a, Use of Grammar 14

a1. Modality 14

a2. Use of Active / Passive voices 14

a3. Sentence order 15

a4. Length of sentences 15

a5. Kinds of sentences 16

b. Use of vocabulary 17

b1. Archaic words and phrases 17

b2. Technical words 17

b3. Borrowed words 17

c. Thematization 17

d. Speech acts 17

3.3.3 The Ending 18

3.3.3.1 The Ending of the Declaration and its realization 18

3.3.3.2 Remarks 19

CHAPTER IV

THE DISCOURSE STRUCTURE AND SOME MAJOR LINGUISTIC FEATURES

OF THE INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION ON HUMAN RIGHTS

IN COMPARISON WITH THOSE OF THE INTERNATIONAL DECLARATION

4.1 Definition of an International Convention 20

4.2 Purposes and typical legal characteristics of the International

Convention on Human Rights 20

4.2.1 Purposes 20

4.2.2 Typical legal characteristics 20

4.3 A study of discourse structure and some major linguistic features

of the International Convention on Human Rights in comparison

with those of the International Declaration on Human Rights 21

4.3.1 The Beginning 21

4.3.1.1 The Title and Preamble of the Convention and their realization 21

4.3.1.2 Remarks 23

4.3.2 The Body 23

4.3.2.1 The Body of the Convention and its realization 23

4.3.2.2 Remarks 26

a, Use of Grammar 26

a1. Modality 26

a2. Use of Active/ Passive voices 27

a3. Sentence order 27

a4. Length of sentences 27

a5. Kinds of sentences 28

b. Use of vocabulary 28

b1. Archaic words and phrases 29

b2. Technical words 29

b3. Borrowed words 29

c. Thematisation 29

d. Speech acts 30

4.3.3 The Ending 30

4.3.3.1 The Ending of the Convention and its realization 30

4.3.3.2 Remarks 30

Chapter V

Conclusion  Some notes oN THE similarities and differences

between international Declarations and Conventions

in terms of discourse structures and major linguistic features

5.1 Similarities 32

a, Type of discourse 32

b, Register (or Functional style) 32

c, Writing style 32

d, Linguistic features 33

e, Structure 33

5.2 Differences 34

a, Expression 34

b, Structure 34

* Typical structure of an International Declaration on Human Rights 37

* Typical structure of an International Convention on Human Rights 38

* Sources of data 39

* References 40

* ANNEX I

- Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948 I

- International Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989 VII

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