Luận văn Disagreeing in english and vietnamese: a pragmatics and conversation analysis perspective

TABLE OF CONTENTS ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS IABSTRACT IIITABLE OF CONTENTS VLIST OF TABLES AND CHARTS XABBREVIATIONS AND CONVENTIONS XIIIINTRODUCTION 11. RATIONALE 11.1. NECESSITY OF THE STUDY 11.1.1. Problem statement 11.1.2. Society, culture and language 21.2. MERITS OF THE STUDY 31.2.1. Academic merits 31.2.2. Practical merits 42. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 43. RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY 63.1. RESEARCH QUESTION 63.2. GROUNDS FOR RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 63.2. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 64. SCOPE OF THE STUDY 75. METHODOLOGY 95.1. METHODS 95.2. PRAGMATICS AND CONVERSATION ANALYSIS 105.2.1. Choice of conversation analysis 105.2.2. Combination of pragmatics and conversation analysis 105.2.3. Combination of pragmatics and CA in other studies 116. CREATIVITY 126.1. SYNTHETIC APPROACH – PRAGMATICS AND CONVERSATION ANALYSIS 126.2. DATA FROM QUESTIONNAIRES AND NATURALLY OCCURRING CONVERSATION 126.3. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN DISAGREEING 127. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY 13CHAPTER ONE 14DISAGREEING – A COMMUNICATIVE ILLOCUTIONARY AND SOCIAL ACT 141.1. THEORETICAL PRELIMINARIES 141.1.1. Speech Act Theory 141.1.1.1. Speech acts and speech events 141.1.1.2. Three-dimension speech acts 151.1.1.3. Classification of speech acts 161.1.1.4. Disagreeing – a communicative illocutionary act 181.1.2. Conversation Analysis 201.1.2.1. Historical background 201.1.2.2. Co-text and context 221.1.2.3. Turn – turn taking and adjacency pairs 241.1.2.4. Disagreeing – a social act 271.1.3. Summary 291.2. EMPIRICAL STUDY 291.2.1. Aims and methodology 291.2.1.1. Aims 291.2.1.2. Data collection methods and respondents 301.2.2. Assessment of socio-cultural parameters by respondents 371.2.2.1. Data results 371.2.2.2. Comments 431.2.3. Assessment of situations by respondents 441.2.3.1. Data results 441.2.3.2. Comments 481.2.4. Summary 501.3. CONCLUDING REMARKS 51CHAPTER TWO 52POLITENESS IN DISAGREEING 522.1. THEORETICAL PRELIMINARIES 522.1.1. Notion of Politeness 532.1.2. Volitional Approach 552.1.2.1. Grice’s principle 552.1.2.2. Lakoff’s rules and Leech’s maxims 562.1.2.3. Brown & Levinson’s model 582.1.3. Normative Approach 602.1.3.1. Chinese research 602.1.3.2. Japanese research 622.1.3.3. Other non-Anglophone research 632.1.4. Normative-Volitional Approach 642.1.4.1. Literature by Vietnamese researchers 642.1.4.2. Literature by other researchers 682.1.5 Summary 692.2. EMPIRICAL STUDY 702.2.1. Aims and Methodology 702.2.1.1. Aims 702.2.1.2. Data collection methods and respondents 702.2.2. Politeness Level Rated by Respondents 712.2.2.1. Data results 712.2.2.2. Comments 802.2.3. Summary 812.3. CONCLUDING REMARKS 81CHAPTER THREE 83STRATEGIES OF POLITENESS IN DISAGREEING 833.1. THEORETICAL PRELIMINARIES 833.1.1. Brown & Levinson’s Model of Strategies 833.1.2. Manipulation of Strategies 843.1.2.1. Bald-on-record strategies 843.1.2.2. On-record strategies 863.1.2.3. Off-record strategies 893.1.2.4. No FTA 943.1.3. Indirectness in Disagreeing 953.1.3.1. Notion of indirectness 953.1.3.2. Factors governing indirectness 973.1.3.3. Indirectness and politeness 983.1.4. Summary 1023.2. EMPIRICAL STUDY 1033.2.1. Aims and Methodology 1033.2.1.1. Aims 1033.2.1.2. Data collection methods and respondents 1033.2.2. Choice of Strategies by Respondents 1043.2.2.1. Data results 1043.2.2.2. Comments 1153.2.3. Summary 1153.3. CONCLUDING REMARKS 116CHAPTER FOUR 118STRATEGIES CONCERNING PREFERENCE ORGANIZATION 1184.1. THEORETICAL PRELIMINARIES 1184.1.1. Preferred Second Turns 1184.1.1.1. Markedness 1184.1.1.2. Structural organization 1194.1.1.3. Dispreferred second turns in disagreeing 1214.1.2. Preferred Sequences 1254.1.2.1. Repair apparatus 1254.1.2.2. Repair apparatus in disagreeing 1304.1.3. Summary 1334.2. EMPIRICAL STUDY 1344.2.1. Aims and Methodology 1344.2.1.1. Aims 1344.2.1.2. Data collection methods and respondents 1344.2.2. Strategies for Disagreements as Dispreferred Seconds 1374.2.2.1. English corpus 1374.2.2.2. Vietnamese corpus 1414.2.2.3. Comments 1484.2.3. Strategies for Disagreements as Preferred Seconds 1494.2.3.1. English corpus 1494.2.3.2. Vietnamese corpus 1514.2.3.3. Comments 1574.2.4. Summary 1574.3. CONCLUDING REMARKS 158CHAPTER FIVE 160STRATEGIES FOR CONSTRAINT SYSTEMS AND NEGOTIATION OF DISAGREEMENTS 1605.1. THEORETICAL PRELIMINARIES 1605.1.1. Constraint Systems 1605.1.2. Negotiation of Disagreements 1615.1.2.1. Insertion sequences 1625.1.2.2. Summons-answer sequences 1625.1.2.3. Pre-sequences 1635.1.2.4. Sequences in disagreeing 1665.1.3. Some Frequently Used Devices in Disagreements 1685.1.3.1. Intensifiers 1685.1.3.2. Person referring terms 1705.1.4. Summary 1745.2. EMPIRICAL STUDY 1755.2.1. Aims and Methodology 1755.2.1.1. Aims 1755.2.1.2. Data collection methods and respondents 1755.2.2. Strategies for Constraint Systems 1765.2.2.1. English corpus 1765.2.2.2. Vietnamese corpus 1785.2.3. Strategies for Negotiation of Disagreements 1815.2.3.1. English corpus 1815.2.3.2. Vietnamese corpus 1845.2.4. Summary 1905.3. CONCLUDING REMARKS 192CONCLUSION 1931. MAJOR FINDINGS 1931.1. POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN DISAGREEING 1931.2. NORMATIVE-VOLITIONAL POLITENESS AND INDIRECTNESS 1941.3. STRATEGIES CONCERNING PREFERENCE ORGANIZATION 1951.4. STRATEGIES FOR NEGOTIATION OF DISAGREEMENTS AND CONSTRAINT SYSTEMS 1962. IMPLICATIONS 1972.1. EFL & VFL IMPLICATIONS 1972.2. PRAGMATICS AND CA PERSPECTIVE IN SPEECH ACT STUDY 1983. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 200APPENDIXES IAPPENDIX 1 ITRANSCRIPTION CONVENTIONS IAPPENDIX 2 IIISURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES IIIBIBLIOGRAPHY XIIIENGLISH XIIIVIETNAMESE XXVIII

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I

ABSTRACT III

TABLE OF CONTENTS V

LIST OF TABLES AND CHARTS X

ABBREVIATIONS AND CONVENTIONS XIII

INTRODUCTION 1

1. RATIONALE 1

1.1. NECESSITY OF THE STUDY 1

1.1.1. Problem statement 1

1.1.2. Society, culture and language 2

1.2. MERITS OF THE STUDY 3

1.2.1. Academic merits 3

1.2.2. Practical merits 4

2. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 4

3. RESEARCH QUESTION AND HYPOTHESES OF THE STUDY 6

3.1. RESEARCH QUESTION 6

3.2. GROUNDS FOR RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 6

3.2. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES 6

4. SCOPE OF THE STUDY 7

5. METHODOLOGY 9

5.1. METHODS 9

5.2. PRAGMATICS AND CONVERSATION ANALYSIS 10

5.2.1. Choice of conversation analysis 10

5.2.2. Combination of pragmatics and conversation analysis 10

5.2.3. Combination of pragmatics and CA in other studies 11

6. CREATIVITY 12

6.1. SYNTHETIC APPROACH – PRAGMATICS AND CONVERSATION ANALYSIS 12

6.2. DATA FROM QUESTIONNAIRES AND NATURALLY OCCURRING CONVERSATION 12

6.3. SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES IN DISAGREEING 12

7. ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY 13

CHAPTER ONE 14

DISAGREEING – A COMMUNICATIVE ILLOCUTIONARY AND SOCIAL ACT 14

1.1. THEORETICAL PRELIMINARIES 14

1.1.1. Speech Act Theory 14

1.1.1.1. Speech acts and speech events 14

1.1.1.2. Three-dimension speech acts 15

1.1.1.3. Classification of speech acts 16

1.1.1.4. Disagreeing – a communicative illocutionary act 18

1.1.2. Conversation Analysis 20

1.1.2.1. Historical background 20

1.1.2.2. Co-text and context 22

1.1.2.3. Turn – turn taking and adjacency pairs 24

1.1.2.4. Disagreeing – a social act 27

1.1.3. Summary 29

1.2. EMPIRICAL STUDY 29

1.2.1. Aims and methodology 29

1.2.1.1. Aims 29

1.2.1.2. Data collection methods and respondents 30

1.2.2. Assessment of socio-cultural parameters by respondents 37

1.2.2.1. Data results 37

1.2.2.2. Comments 43

1.2.3. Assessment of situations by respondents 44

1.2.3.1. Data results 44

1.2.3.2. Comments 48

1.2.4. Summary 50

1.3. CONCLUDING REMARKS 51

CHAPTER TWO 52

POLITENESS IN DISAGREEING 52

2.1. THEORETICAL PRELIMINARIES 52

2.1.1. Notion of Politeness 53

2.1.2. Volitional Approach 55

2.1.2.1. Grice’s principle 55

2.1.2.2. Lakoff’s rules and Leech’s maxims 56

2.1.2.3. Brown & Levinson’s model 58

2.1.3. Normative Approach 60

2.1.3.1. Chinese research 60

2.1.3.2. Japanese research 62

2.1.3.3. Other non-Anglophone research 63

2.1.4. Normative-Volitional Approach 64

2.1.4.1. Literature by Vietnamese researchers 64

2.1.4.2. Literature by other researchers 68

2.1.5 Summary 69

2.2. EMPIRICAL STUDY 70

2.2.1. Aims and Methodology 70

2.2.1.1. Aims 70

2.2.1.2. Data collection methods and respondents 70

2.2.2. Politeness Level Rated by Respondents 71

2.2.2.1. Data results 71

2.2.2.2. Comments 80

2.2.3. Summary 81

2.3. CONCLUDING REMARKS 81

CHAPTER THREE 83

STRATEGIES OF POLITENESS IN DISAGREEING 83

3.1. THEORETICAL PRELIMINARIES 83

3.1.1. Brown & Levinson’s Model of Strategies 83

3.1.2. Manipulation of Strategies 84

3.1.2.1. Bald-on-record strategies 84

3.1.2.2. On-record strategies 86

3.1.2.3. Off-record strategies 89

3.1.2.4. No FTA 94

3.1.3. Indirectness in Disagreeing 95

3.1.3.1. Notion of indirectness 95

3.1.3.2. Factors governing indirectness 97

3.1.3.3. Indirectness and politeness 98

3.1.4. Summary 102

3.2. EMPIRICAL STUDY 103

3.2.1. Aims and Methodology 103

3.2.1.1. Aims 103

3.2.1.2. Data collection methods and respondents 103

3.2.2. Choice of Strategies by Respondents 104

3.2.2.1. Data results 104

3.2.2.2. Comments 115

3.2.3. Summary 115

3.3. CONCLUDING REMARKS 116

CHAPTER FOUR 118

STRATEGIES CONCERNING PREFERENCE ORGANIZATION 118

4.1. THEORETICAL PRELIMINARIES 118

4.1.1. Preferred Second Turns 118

4.1.1.1. Markedness 118

4.1.1.2. Structural organization 119

4.1.1.3. Dispreferred second turns in disagreeing 121

4.1.2. Preferred Sequences 125

4.1.2.1. Repair apparatus 125

4.1.2.2. Repair apparatus in disagreeing 130

4.1.3. Summary 133

4.2. EMPIRICAL STUDY 134

4.2.1. Aims and Methodology 134

4.2.1.1. Aims 134

4.2.1.2. Data collection methods and respondents 134

4.2.2. Strategies for Disagreements as Dispreferred Seconds 137

4.2.2.1. English corpus 137

4.2.2.2. Vietnamese corpus 141

4.2.2.3. Comments 148

4.2.3. Strategies for Disagreements as Preferred Seconds 149

4.2.3.1. English corpus 149

4.2.3.2. Vietnamese corpus 151

4.2.3.3. Comments 157

4.2.4. Summary 157

4.3. CONCLUDING REMARKS 158

CHAPTER FIVE 160

STRATEGIES FOR CONSTRAINT SYSTEMS AND NEGOTIATION OF DISAGREEMENTS 160

5.1. THEORETICAL PRELIMINARIES 160

5.1.1. Constraint Systems 160

5.1.2. Negotiation of Disagreements 161

5.1.2.1. Insertion sequences 162

5.1.2.2. Summons-answer sequences 162

5.1.2.3. Pre-sequences 163

5.1.2.4. Sequences in disagreeing 166

5.1.3. Some Frequently Used Devices in Disagreements 168

5.1.3.1. Intensifiers 168

5.1.3.2. Person referring terms 170

5.1.4. Summary 174

5.2. EMPIRICAL STUDY 175

5.2.1. Aims and Methodology 175

5.2.1.1. Aims 175

5.2.1.2. Data collection methods and respondents 175

5.2.2. Strategies for Constraint Systems 176

5.2.2.1. English corpus 176

5.2.2.2. Vietnamese corpus 178

5.2.3. Strategies for Negotiation of Disagreements 181

5.2.3.1. English corpus 181

5.2.3.2. Vietnamese corpus 184

5.2.4. Summary 190

5.3. CONCLUDING REMARKS 192

CONCLUSION 193

1. MAJOR FINDINGS 193

1.1. POLITENESS STRATEGIES IN DISAGREEING 193

1.2. NORMATIVE-VOLITIONAL POLITENESS AND INDIRECTNESS 194

1.3. STRATEGIES CONCERNING PREFERENCE ORGANIZATION 195

1.4. STRATEGIES FOR NEGOTIATION OF DISAGREEMENTS AND CONSTRAINT SYSTEMS 196

2. IMPLICATIONS 197

2.1. EFL & VFL IMPLICATIONS 197

2.2. PRAGMATICS AND CA PERSPECTIVE IN SPEECH ACT STUDY 198

3. SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH 200

APPENDIXES I

APPENDIX 1 I

TRANSCRIPTION CONVENTIONS I

APPENDIX 2 III

SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRES III

BIBLIOGRAPHY XIII

ENGLISH XIII

VIETNAMESE XXVIII

TÀI LIỆU LUẬN VĂN CÙNG DANH MỤC

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